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ON THE MOTION OF PENDULUMS. 85
With respect to the correction for confined space, it seems evident that the vacuum tube must have impeded the free motion of the air, and consequently increased the resistance experienced by the pendulum when it was swung in air, and that the increase' of resistance caused by the cylindrical tube must have been somewhat less than that which would have been produced by a spherical envelope of the same radius surrounding the sphere. The effect of a spherical envelope has been investigated in Section II., Part I.; but as we are obliged at last to have recourse to estimation, it is needless to be very precise in calculating the increase of resistance due to such an envelope, and we may accordingly employ the expression obtained from the ordinary theory of hydrodynamics. According to this theory, the increase of the factor k, which is due to the envelope, is equal to fa3 (bs — a3)"1, or f a86~3 nearly, when 6 is large compared with a. The increase due to a cylindrical envelope whose axis is vertical, and consequently perpendicular to the direction of oscillation of the sphere, may be estimated at about two-thirds of the increase due to a spherical envelope of the same diameter. I have accordingly taken + asb~3 for the correction for confined space, and have supposed 26 = 6'5 inches.
The diameter of the wire employed in the pendulums Nos. 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7, is stated to have been about the ^th of an inch, and that of the wire employed with the heavy brass sphere No. 66, about 0'023 inch. The ivory sphere No. 4 was swung with a fine wire weighing rather more than half a grain. Taking the weight at half a grain, and the specific gravity of silver at 10'5, we have for this wire 2at = 0'00251 nearly. The diameters of the three brass spheres in the following table are taken from page 447 of Baily's memoir. The several parts of which, according to theory, n is composed, are exhibited separately.
The mean error in different determinations of n for the same sphere was about O'Ol or 0'02, and this does not include errors arising from small errors in specific gravities, &c. Hence, if we except the spheres Nos. 1, 2, and 43 the discrepancies between theory and experiment are altogether insignificant. In considering the confirmation thence arising to the theory, it must be borne in mind that the theory did not furnish a single disposable constant, inasmuch as \Jp! was already determined from the experiments